One of the themes we have been exploring in the Cambridge Service Alliance is the question of how organisations best innovate their service business models. In some of our early work, Ivanka Visnjic and I, developed a framework of 12 capabilities that underpin successful service business model innovation. Since then we have been developing and iterating this framework, creating a maturity model that firms can used to assess the maturity of their capabilities for innovating their service business models. It seemed to me that it would a good idea to write a series of blogs on this framework and the twelve capabilities that underpin it - so here's the first one - explaining the framework.
In essence our research suggests there are four categories of capability that really matter when it comes to innovating the service business model. These are: (i) the ecosystem; (ii) the value proposition; (iii) the value delivery system and (iv) accountability spread. Let me explain these in turn.
The first set of capabilities are concerned with the ecosystem - increasingly competition is taking place at the level of the ecosystem, not the individual firm. In today's interconnected economy, what matters is the way the ecosystem is configured and how your firm is positioned to capture value from it. Apple and HP illustrate the point. If you ask the question - "of the $1,000 someone pays for an Apple or HP machine, who gets the money" - you find that Apple keep 60-70%, while HP keep only 30%. Why the difference? Because Apple use their own proprietary operating system (they don't cede money to Microsoft), they use their own chip (they don't cede money to Intel) and they have created their own distribution infrastructure (they don't cede money to the retailers).
So what can HP do? It is too late for them to develop their own operating system or get into chip manufacturing. Both technologies are too well established, with large incumbent players and high barriers to entry. The cost of establishing a retail infrastructure, certainly a high street retail infrastructure, is prohibitive. But what they can do is invest in Linux. If HP help Linux become a more dominant operating system then Linux reduces Microsoft's power in the marketplace and hence their ability to appropriate value, leaving more of the money on the table for HP. And in fact, it is in the interests of all of HP's traditional competitors to increase the power of Linux. So if HP collaborates with other laptop manufacturers, then collectively they can try to shape the ecosystem and their ability to capture value.
It is not just the ecosystem perspective that matters. The second theme that we saw in our research was the importance of innovating the value proposition - really understanding what the customer valued and the outcomes they were looking for. There's an old Theodore Levitt quote - "customers don't want quarter inch drills, they want quarter inch holes". We don't think this is right. Customers don't even want quarter inch holes. When innovating your value proposition you have to understand why the customer wants the quarter inch hole. If it is to hang a picture, then how else might the picture be hung - you could glue it to the wall. You could invite an artist in to paint the picture on the wall. The key to innovating you value proposition is to understand deeply what your customers really value.
Beyond the value proposition, the third category of capabilities centred on the value delivery system. Here we are shifting into the question of how do we configure the resources and activities required to deliver the value proposition. What should we do? What should we ask others to do? Many of the services firms deliver today require networks of organisations to pool their capabilities. Understanding the right network structure and identifying the right partners is essential when innovating the service business model.
Finally, we shift to capabilities concerned with accountability spread. Here the idea is that by taking on responsibility for the outcomes your customers want - you increase your risk and exposure. By innovating the value delivery system - either through technology or partnering with others - you may decrease the control you have over the ecosystem. Hence you have increased your accountability, but potentially reduced your control - hence you may have increased your risk or accountability spread. Understanding the implications of this and how the risk will therefore be managed is paramount if the service business model is to be sustainable.
These four categories of capability - ecosystem, value proposition, value delivery system and accountability spread - form the highest level of our framework for understanding business model innovation. In future blogs I'll unpack each of these categories in turn and explain the capabilities that underpin them.
Professor Andy Neely
Director Cambridge Service Alliance